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The Bell System Technical Journal (1922-1983)

The scientific discoveries and technological innovations produced by Bell System research and engineering were critical not only to the evolution of global telecommunications but, more widely, they had a considerable impact on the technological base of the global economy and, indeed, on our daily lives.

Bell Labs is the source of many significant contributions, of course, in the area of telephony, but also in memory devices, imaging devices, system organization, computers and software technology, as well as acoustics, optics, switching, transmission, wireless and data communication. New principles, new materials, new devices, and new systems from Bell Telephone Laboratories resulted in new industries, hundreds of new products, and thousands of new jobs. The invention of the transistor in 1947, and subsequent advances in related solid-state device and circuit technology formed the basis of a multibillion dollar global industry and ultimately enabled the digital world. Shannon's seminal paper titled >"A Mathematical Theory of Communication," published over 60 years ago, gave birth to Information Theory and has stood as the guiding foundation for communications scientists and engineers in their quest for faster, more efficient, and more robust communications systems ever since. The charge-coupled device (CCD), a technology that transforms patterns of light into useful digital information, is the basis for many forms of modern digital imaging. It has launched entirely new industries and markets and is widely used in devices as diverse as digital cameras, video cameras, and bar code readers as well as in security monitoring, medical endoscopy, modern astronomy and video conferencing. Optical technology and systems, from earliest advances in lasers to low-loss fiber, opto-electronic waveguide devices, and high capacity WDM transmission systems have enabled worldwide connectivity to build a truly global community. Cellular telephone service, the concept that multiple lower-power transmitters could be spread throughout a region employing automatic call handoff and frequency reuse changed the face of communications. Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) smart antenna technology in concert with LTE, based on OFDM technology, will define next generation wireless, delivering wider coverage and higher throughput.

"Technological innovation" is more than just invention. It is a process, often long and costly, of transforming new scientific knowledge into feasible technology, introducing it to use, and making its benefits available to the public. âTechnical integrationâ is intended to emphasize the more subtle flow of an intangibleâengineering information and understanding. Not only has Bell Labs innovated, but it also showed the world technical integration of the innovations. The Bell System Technical Journal was a key enabler for this achievement.

With this posting of the Bell System Technical Journal from volume 1 issue 1 in July 1922 to the final issue published in December 1983, we are pleased to be able to open the vault of this knowledge to our global technical colleagues.

Rod Alferness
Chief Scientist, Bell Labs


texts 4,412

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technical journal 682
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transmission 556
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signal 366
data 305
bell telephone 286
noise 236
equation 219
output 218
error 216
optical 212
phase 205
network 204
engaged 202
impedance 200
sigma 196
digital 193
probability 190
cable 187
magnetic 176
university 176
institute 173
voltage 173
tau beta 171
current 168
electron 167
fiber 166
waveguide 166
loss 165
mode 162
theorem 161
power 159
channel 158
input 158
switching 158
circuits 157
kappa 156
eta kappa 153
antenna 151
pulse 150
filter 146
design 142
beam 136
wave 135
exp 130
western electric 130
modes 128
speech 128
carrier 126
field 125
function 124
values 123
repeater 122
attenuation 120
dielectric 119
tau 118
amplitude 116
program 116
sin 115
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amplifier 109
equations 109
ieee 109
matrix 107
trunk 105
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development 97
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gain 89
bell laboratories 88
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american physical 49
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optical fiber 45
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velocity 45
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monograph 44
dielectric constant 43
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english 4,412
Date Published
Bell System Technical Journal, 23: 3. July 1944 pp 282-332. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise. (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: random, noise, probability, function, average, theorem, spectrum, interval, density, mathematical,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 2. April 1924 pp 324-346. Certain Factors Affecting Telegraph Speed. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: wave, current, signal, rectangular, telegraph, voltage, frequency, codes, morse, sine, technical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 3. May 1958 pp 711-718. Measurement of Sheet Resistivities with the Four-Point Probe. (Smits, F.M.)
Topics: resistivities, resistivity, probe, infinite, voltage, finite, measurement, sheet, sample,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 9: 2. April 1930 pp 364-389. Economic Quality Control of Manufactured Product. (Shewhart, W.A.)
Topics: quality, variability, assignable, control, limits, journal, statistical, product, tensile,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 4. October 1949 pp 656-715. Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: key, secrecy, message, systems, probabilities, system, equivocation, cryptogram, messages, cipher,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 30: 1. January 1951 pp 50-64. Prediction and Entropy of Printed English. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, prediction, text, frequencies, probabilities, probability, letters, letter, rectangular,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 3. July 1949 pp 435-489. The Theory of p-n Junctions in Semiconductors and p-n Junction Transistors. (Shockley, W.)
Topics: current, holes, transition, diffusion, equation, potential, recombination, hole, electron,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 2. April 1950 pp 147-160. Error Detecting and Error Correcting Codes. (Hamming, R.W.)
Topics: code, error, codes, positions, minimum, single, correcting, parity, check, detecting, code points,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 13: 4. October 1934 pp 532-579. The Electromagnetic Theory of Coaxial Transmission Lines and Cylindrical Shields. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: impedance, coaxial, electromagnetic, electromotive, surface, conductor, cylindrical, equations,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 33: 3. May 1954 pp 661-719. Coupled Wave Theory and Waveguide Applications. (Miller, S.E.)
Topics: coupling, wave, coupled, loss, transfer, phase, discrimination, waveguide, constants, mode, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 25: 2. April 1946 pp 167-348. The Magnetron as a Generator of Centimeter Waves. (Fisk, J.B.; Hagstrum, H.D.; Hartman, P.L.)
Topics: magnetron, resonator, frequency, anode, output, magnetrons, mode, cathode, magnetic, circuit,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 6. November 1960 pp 1381-1444. Signaling Systems for Control of Telephone Switching. (Breen, C.; Dahlbom, C.A.)
Topics: signaling, signal, systems, trunk, transmission, system, signals, switching, dial, pulsing, central...
Bell System Technical Journal, 42: 6. November 1963 pp 2839-2847. Spectral Characteristics of Digit-Stimulating Speech Sounds. (Borenstein, D.P.)
Topics: xxxxxxxx, xxxxx, xxxxxx, iii, ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, speech, xxxx, xxx, ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxx...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 3. May 1957 pp 593-626. Radio Propagation Fundamentals. (Bullington, Kenneth)
Topics: transmission, antenna, frequency, radio, diffraction, loss, propagation, fading, signal, median,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 5. May-June 1969 pp 1421-1444. Microstrip Lines for Microwave Integrated Circuits. (Schneider, M.V.)
Topics: microstrip, dielectric, impedance, conductor, strip, transverse, ohm, attenuation, thickness,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 7: 3. July 1928 pp 535-563. Transmission of Information. (Hartley, R.V.L.)
Topics: transmission, selections, symbols, wave, steady, transmitted, system, frequency, technical journal,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 24: 1. January 1945 pp 46-156. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise . (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: noise, probability, random, function, sin, journal, spectrum, frequency, density, band, random...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 745-808. The Theory and Design of Chirp Radars (Klauder, J.R.; Price, A.C.; Darlington, S.; Albersheim, W.J.)
Topics: signal, chirp, pulse, frequency, network, weighting, amplitude, radars, output, linear, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 19: 1. January 1940 pp 1-39. The Physical Basis of Ferromagnetism. (Bozorth, R.M.)
Topics: magnetic, magnetization, electrons, atoms, nickel, ferromagnetic, electron, atom, ferromagnetism,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 46: 6. July-August 1967 pp 1055-1133. The Si-SiO2 Interface - Electrical Properties as Determined by the Metal-Insulator-Silicon Conductance Technique. (Nicollian, E.H.; Goetzberger, A.)
Topics: interface, bias, surface, density, capacitance, oxide, conductance, silicon, frequency, measured,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 995-1012. Human Factors Engineering Studies of the Design and Use of Pushbutton Telephone Sets (Deininger, R.L.)
Topics: keying, pushbutton, telephone, button, studies, interdigital, key, characteristics, contact, keyed,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 43: 4. July 1964 pp 1783-1809. Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Waveguides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers. (Marcatili, E.A.J.; Schmeltzer, R.A.)
Topics: modes, attenuation, dielectric, hollow, guide, curvature, optical, radius, mode, field, optical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 34: 5. September 1955 pp 1045-1079. A Method for Synthesizing Sequential Circuits. (Mealy, George H.)
Topics: circuit, circuits, input, method, table, rule, combination, sequential, equivalence, synthesis,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 47: 6. July-August 1968 pp 957-1000. A Statistical Theory of Mobile-Radio Reception. (Clarke, R.H.)
Topics: mobile, antenna, spectrum, frequency, signal, random, autocovariance, function, equation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 22: 3. October 1943 pp 393-396. Electromagnetic Waves: Review of S. A. Schelkunoff's Book . (LeCorbeiller, P.)
Topics: wilh, impedance, wave, chapter, iht, ihc, nol, velocity, irom
Bell System Technical Journal, 15: 1. January 1936 pp 92-112. Some Equivalence Theorems of Electromagnetics and Their Application to Radiation Problems. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: magnetic, electric, current, equivalence, currents, sources, coaxial, field, tangential, radiated,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 2. March, 1956 pp 333-347. Electrolytic Shaping of Germanium and Silicon. (Uhlir, A., Jr.)
Topics: electrolytic, tlie, electrolyte, barrier, germanium, etch, current, etching, etch pits, tho
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 1. January 1960 pp 205-233. Solid Solubilities of Impurity Elements in Germanium and Silicon. (Trumbore, F.A.)
Topics: data, solid, solidus, curve, impurity, solubility, solubilities, germanium, silicon, crystals, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 1 January 1957 pp 293-326. Route Selection and Cable Laying for the Transatlantic Cable System (Jack, J.S.; Leech, Capt. W.H.; Lewis, H.A.)
Topics: cable, repeater, laying, cables, repeaters, route, submarine, clarenville, system, miles, cable...
Bell System Technical Journal, 1: 1. July 1922 pp 1-3. Forward.
( 2 reviews )
Topics: scientific, journal, communication, electrical, technical, articles, industries, methods, bell,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 22: 1. January 1943 pp 80-107. A Mathematical Theory of Linear Arrays. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: array, arrays, linear, elements, nulls, sin, null, radiation, amplitudes, equispaced, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 2. April 1924 pp 259-267. A Reactance Theorem. (Foster, Ronald M.)
Topics: reactance, impedance, resonant, network, formulas, networks, theorem, circuits, formula,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1991-2019. UNIX Time-Sharing System: The C Programming Language. (Ritchie, D.M.; Johnson, S.C.; Lesk, M.E.; Kernighan, B.W.)
Topics: array, language, pointer, function, compiler, variables, bcpl, programming, bell, expression, top...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 947-962. Synthesis of Driving-Point Impedances with Active RC Networks (Sandberg, I.W.)
Topics: impedance, synthesis, impedances, converter, active, network, poles, biquadratic, realization,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 4. July 1962 pp 1295-1336. Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions, Fourier Analysis and Uncertainty -- III: The Dimension of the Space of Essentially Time- and Band-Limited Signals. (Landau, H.J.; Pollak, H.O.)
Topics: theorem, functions, sin, spheroidal, function, fourier, prolate, lemma, wave, iii, upper half, unit...
Bell System Technical Journal, 16: 4. October 1937 pp 493-512. The Dielectric Properties of Insulating Materials. (Murphy, E.J.; Morgan, S.O.)
Topics: dielectric, polarizations, polarization, frequency, dispersion, atomic, dipole, constant,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 1: 2. November 1922 pp 43-55. The Heaviside Operational Calculus. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: operational, solution, heaviside, equations, equation, formula, calculus, integral, asymptotic,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 17: 1. January 1938 pp 17-48. The Impedance Concept and its Application to Problems of Reflection, Refraction, Shielding and Power Absorption. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: impedance, wave, waves, impedances, reflection, ratio, radial, transmission, field, characteristic,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 379-423. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: log, probability, channel, entropy, source, probabilities, sequences, symbols, discrete, sequence,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 40: 1. January 1961 pp 43-63. Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions, Fourier Analysis and Uncertainty - I. (Slepian, D.; Pollak, H.O. 65-84)
Topics: functions, spheroidal, bandlimited, fourier, eigenvalues, interval, wave, prolate, equation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 40: 1. January 1961 pp 1-41. Proving Theorems by Pattern Recognition - II. (Wang, Hao)
Topics: row, formula, rows, cyclic, predicate, theorems, formulae, atomic, procedure, finite, finite set,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 4. July 1956 pp 917-926. A New Interpretation of Information Rate. (Kelly, J.L., Jr.)
Topics: bets, gambler, log, transmitted, exponential, probability, rate, symbol, transmission,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 10. December 1978 pp 3531-3537. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: bell, data, transaction, tau, systems, eta, beta, kappa, phi, design, executive director, digital...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 487-509. Methods of Electromagnetic Field Analysis. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: equations, transmission, electromagnetic, network, impedance, magnetic, field, modes, wave,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 4. October 1929 pp 613-631. A Method of Sampling Inspection. (Dodge, H.F.; Romig, H.G.)
Topics: inspection, sampling, tolerance, average, method, defective, acceptance, sample, minimum, pieces,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 4. July 1962 pp 1347-1369. Generalized Confocal Resonator Theory. (Boyd, G.D.; Kogelnik, H.)
Topics: reflector, resonator, reflectors, modes, curvature, diffraction, mode, confocal, resonators,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 8. October 1965 pp 1675-1698. Design Theory of Balanced Transistor Amplifiers. (Kurokawa, K.)
Topics: amplifier, balanced, directional, amplifiers, couplers, component, coupling, transistor, ports,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 58: 1. January 1979 pp 15-41. Advanced Mobile Phone Service: The Cellular Concept. (MacDonald, V.H.)
Topics: cell, cellular, cells, mobile, site, channels, system, channel, directional, sites, cell radius,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 7. September 1969 pp 2071-2102. Dielectric Rectangular Waveguide and Directional Coupler for Integrated Optics. (Marcatili, E.A.J.)
Topics: modes, dielectric, guide, refractive, equations, propagation, coupling, guides, waveguide, field,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 3. July 1932 pp 411-450. Transmission Lines for Short-Wave Radio Systems. (Sterba, E.J.; Feldman, C.B.)
Topics: lines, impedance, transmission, conductor, radio, attenuation, radiated, concentric,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 4: 3. July 1925 pp 349-354. Oliver Heaviside. (Gill, F.)
Topics: heaviside, inductance, waves, telegraph, oliver, coils, engineers, electrical, propagation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 973-994. The Construction of Missile Guidance Codes Resistant to Random Interference (Eckler, A.R.)
Topics: codes, false, pulses, command, code, mod, security, missile, commands, pulse, false pulses,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 5. May-June 1965 pp 823-870. Miniaturized RC Filters Using Phase-Locked Loop. (Moschytz, G.S.)
Topics: frequency, voltage, capture, filter, phase, bandwidth, vco, apll, loop, range, error voltage,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 52: 9. November 1973 pp 1483-1519. A Geometric Theory of Intersymbol Interference, Part I: Zero-Forcing and Decision-Feedback Equalization. (Messerschmitt, D.G.)
Topics: dfe, zfe, geometric, filter, linear, theory, random, intersymbol, orthogonal, finite, intersymbol...
Bell System Technical Journal, 51: 5. May-June 1972 pp 955-1126. Where on the Moon? An Apollo Systems Engineering Problem. (Cappellari, J.O. Jr.)
Topics: lunar, apollo, landing, descent, trajectory, mission, launch, site, surface, spacecraft, launch...
Bell System Technical Journal, 32: 2. March 1953 pp 506-518. Abstracts of Bell System Technical Papers Not Published in this Journal.
Topics: transistor, transistors, telephone, frequency, switching, abstracts, circuit, bell, experimental,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 20: 1. January 1941 pp 1-61. Single Sampling and Double Inspection Tables. (Dodge, H.F.; Romig, H.G.)
Topics: ooo, sampling, inspection, defective, values, sss, average, aoql, sample, tolerance, single...
Bell System Technical Journal, 38: 6 November 1959 pp 1551-1580. Some Design Considerations for High-Frequency Transistor Amplifiers (Thomas, D.E.)
Topics: transistor, amplifier, feedback, gain, impedance, emitter, circuit, common, input, amplifiers,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 62: 9. November 1983 pp 2663-2694. Calculation of Modes in an Optical Fiber Using the Finite Element Method and EISPACK. (Lenahan, T.A.)
Topics: fiber, modes, propagation, profile, mode, modal, bandwidth, optical, scalar, parabolic, finite...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 4. April 1965 pp 547-588. Automatic Equalization for Digital Communication. (Lucky, R.W.)
Topics: distortion, equalizer, equalization, channel, taps, response, transversal, tap, delay, filter, tap...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 1. January 1960 pp 169-204. Germanium and Silicon Liquidus Curves. (Thurmond, C.D.; Kowalchik, M.)
Topics: liquidus, germanium, silicon, measurements, curve, liquid, curves, solubility, temperature,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 6. November 1957 pp 1389-1401. Shortest Connection Networks And Some Generalizations. (Prim, R.C.)
Topics: shortest, terminal, connection, network, labelled, terminals, spanning, subtree, fragment,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 13: 1. January 1934 pp 1-18. Stabilized Feedback Amplifiers. (Black, H.S.)
Topics: feedback, amplifier, gain, amplifiers, output, modulation, amplification, stability, variations,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 4: 4. October 1925 pp 685-761. Electric Circuit Theory and the Operational Calculus. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: operational, solution, equation, equations, heaviside, circuit, series, integral, theorem,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 40: 3. May 1961 pp 669. A Block Diagram Compiler. (Kelly, John L. Jr.; Lochbaum, Carol; Vyssotsky, V.A.)
Topics: blodi, output, program, delay, input, box, compiler, signal, loop, circuit, uncompiled boxes,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 3. July 1950 pp 295-342. Principles and Applications of Waveguide Transmission. (Southworth, George C.)
Topics: wave, force, electric, transmission, waves, waveguide, lines, magnetic, vector, reflection,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 34: 5. September 1955 pp 995-1043. Conversion of Maxwell's Equations into Generalized Telegraphist's Equations. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: equations, modes, transmission, generalized, conducting, series, field, mode, transverse, waves,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 16: 2. April 1937 pp 144-164. Crosstalk Between Coaxial Transmission Lines. (Schelkunoff, S.A.; Odarenko, T.M.)
Topics: crosstalk, coaxial, impedance, transmission, outer, conductors, mutual, circuit, expression,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 31: 4 July 1952 pp 784-801. Generalized Telegraphist's Equations for Waveguides (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: equations, modes, generalized, waveguide, coupling, isotropic, grad, flux, waveguides,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 510-588. The Evolution of the Quartz Crystal Clock. (Marrison, Warren A.)
Topics: quartz, frequency, crystal, resonator, oscillator, clocks, pendulum, clock, bell, accuracy, quartz...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 446-472. Spectra of Quantized Signals. (Bennett, W.R.)
Topics: signal, frequency, quantizing, quantized, signals, band, distortion, sampling, input, spectra,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 62: 8. October 1983 pp 2647-2659. Papers by Bell Laboratories Authors.
Topics: phys, rev, appl, chem, magn, physica, sol, ieee, optical, lett, magn magn, chem phys, phys rev,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 126-147. Regeneration Theory. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: integral, amplifier, values, expression, lim, curve, network, integration, regeneration, integrand,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 9. November 1969 pp 2909-2947. Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings. (Kogelnik, Herwig)
Topics: holograms, grating, diffraction, gratings, equation, dielectric, wave, absorption, bragg, angular,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 1. January 1948 pp 96-108. A Note on Parallel-Tuned Transformer Design. (Rideout, V.C.)
Topics: transformer, matched, design, transmission, bandwidth, ratio, formulas, mismatched, frequency,...